To counter the effects of over grazing

To counter the effects of over grazing
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Pastures would benefit   from the following:

The management of grazing resources based on traditional control systems and rights which would allow seed production  ,this has been successful in several arab countries

The rotation of pastures through rotation of water pumping stations  

Controlled grazing around water points and better distribution of these points

The improvement of pastures by re seeding

Breeding more productive animals that are adapted to local circumastances

Supplementing grazing by haymaking ,fodder crops trees or waster from irrigated areas

Water points reguire the better management and planning of location and water guantity in relation to carrying capacity and maintenance involving the local people with legal support .

Hand pumps ,animal power or wind energy can all help to reduce reliance on fuel but problems of maintenance and spares often remain

Water   resources must be assessed in order to avoid over exploitation.